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Поначиталась про них всюду, теперь запишу сюда. Все равно, не выучу пока не перепишу сама. Постепенно планирую дополнять и обновлять. Честно привожу откуда инфа:
http://www.gday.ru/ielts/writing/writingtask2/
http://gday.ru/phorum/viewtopic.php?t=23530&highlight=writing
http://www.gday.ru/phorum/viewtopic.php?t=35926&postdays=0&postorder=asc&start=20
также использованы куски from the book "Successful Writing" pp.60-79

Если б кто еще опытным глазом ошибки посмотрел, особенно, пунктуацию... цены бы не было тому! А-то мне что-то не везде нравятся запятые там ;)

Есть 3 вида эссе:

  • For & Against Essays

    A “for & against” essay is a formal piece of writing in which a topic is considered from opposing points of view. You should present both sides in a fair way by discussing them objectively and in equal detail.
    Например, Smoking is a habit which claims many lives and is a great drain on health services. One way to combat smoking would be to make it illegal. What are the pros and cons of such a government policy? What alternative strategies can you suggest to combat smoking? (понимание двух или более сторон проблемы)

    A good essay of this type should consist of:

    a) An introductory paragraph in which you clearly state the topic to be discussed, without giving your opinion;
    b) A main body in which the points for & against along with your justifications, examples or reasons are presented in separate paragraphs; and
    c) A closing paragraph in which you state your opinion or give a balanced consideration of the topic.

    Note: Opinion words (I think, I believe, In my opinion, etc.) can only be used in the closing paragraph where you give your opinion on the topic.

    Points to consider

    Before you start writing your essay you should make a list of the points for & against.
    Each paragraph should start with a topic sentence which summarises the topic of the paragraph.

    e.g. In addition, many people feel reading is a relaxing and worthwhile activity.

    Do not use informal style (e.g. short forms, colloquial language, etc.) or strong language to express your opinion (e.g. I know …, etc.). Express your opinion in a non-emotional way (e.g. It seems that, I therefore feel …, etc.). Well-known quotations relevant to the topic you are writing about will make your composition more interesting. For example, if you are writing an essay on education, a quotation you may include is: “Education is a progressive discovery of your own ignorance.” (Will Durant)

    Note: Although these are balanced arguments, if you feel that either the for or against side is stronger and should be supported, this side should be presented in paragraphs 4 & 5, thus leading the reader to your conclusion.

    Structure


  • Introduction
    Paragraph 1
    State topic (summary of the topic without giving your opinion)
  • Main body
    Paragraphs 2 & 3
    Arguments for and justifications, examples, and/or reasons
    Paragraphs 4 & 5
    Arguments against and justification, examples, and/or reasons
  • Conclusion
    Final paragraph
    Balanced consideration/ your opinion directly or indirectly

    Useful expressions and linking words/phrases
    To list points:
    Firstly, First of all, In the first place, To begin/start with,
    Secondly, Thirdly, Finally

    To list advantages:
    One/Another/A further/An additional (major) advantage of … is …
    The main/greatest/first advantage of … is …

    To list disadvantages:
    One/Another/A further/An additional (major) disadvantage/drawback of …
    The main/greatest/most serious/first disadvantage / drawback of …
    Another negative aspect of …

    To introduce points/arguments for & against:
    One (very convincing) point/argument in favour of … / against …,
    A further common criticism of … / It could be argued that …,


    </th>
    It isoftenclaimed/suggestedthat...
    It iswidelyargued/maintainedthat...
    It isgenerallyfelt/believed/heldthat


    </th>
    some/many/most people/experts/scientists/sceptics/criticsclaim/suggest/argue/feel that …/maintain/believe/point out/agree/hold that …...
    --#--advocate (+ing/noun)/support the view that …/oppose the view that …...
    --#--aren favour of/against …
    of the opinion that/convinced that …
    opposed to …


    To add more points to the same topic:
    in addition (to this), furthermore, moreover, besides, apart from, what is more, as well as, not to mention (the fact) that, also, not only … but also/as well/both … and, There is another side to the issue/question/argument of…

    To make contrasting points:

    on the other hand, however, still, yet, but, nonetheless, nevertheless, even so, it may be said/argued/claimed that, ...
    --#--others/many people oppose this viewpoint/
    (strongly) disagree …,/
    claim/feel/believe this argument is incorrect/misguided

    although, though, even though, while, whilst, whereas, despite/in spite of (the fact that), regardless of the fact that

    Opponents of … argue/believe/claim that …
    The fact that … contradicts the belief/idea that …
    While it is true to say that …, in fact …
    While/Although …, it cannot be denied that …


    Заготовки
    … is an issue which frequently generates a great deal of heated debate, with supporters maintaining the fact that it is vital in order to…, whilst opponents claim that it is …

    In the first place, it is generally believed that …

    Secondly, many people claim that …

    An additional advantage, of … is …

    On the other hand, it is often argued that …

    In addition most people would agree that the most serious disadvantage of … is …

    Furthermore, it is generally felt that …

    Taking everything into consideration, the best course of action would be to …

    Although, it must be said that there is no absolute answer to the question of …

    ~ 100 words


    ТЕКСТ будет еще
    Примеры эссе в следующем посте



  • Opinion Essays

    An opinion essay is a formal piece of writing. It requires your opinion on the topic, which must be stated clearly, giving various viewpoints on the topic supported by reasons and/or examples. You should also include the opposing viewpoint in another paragraph.

    Например, "The best way to help developing countries is to give them financial aid." Write an essay either agreeing or disagreeing with this statement. Suggest alternatives to this policy.(развейте хорошо одну сторону проблемы)


    A successful opinion essay should have:
    a) An introductory paragraph in which you state the topic and your opinion.
    b) A main body which consists of several paragraphs, each presenting a separate viewpoint supported by reasons. You also include a paragraph presenting the opposing viewpoint and reason why you think it is an unconvincing viewpoint; and
    c) A conclusion in which you restate your opinion using different words.

    Points to consider

    ★ Decide whether you agree or disagree with the subject of the topic, than make a list of your viewpoints and reasons.
    ★ Write well-developed paragraphs, joining the sentences with appropriate linking words and phrases. Do not forget to start each paragraph with a topic sentence which summarises what the paragraph is about.
    ★ Linking words and phrases should also be used to join one paragraph with the other.

    Structure

  • Introduction
    Paragraph 1
    State the topic and your opinion clearly
  • Main body
    Paragraph 2
    Viewpoint 1 and reason/example
    Paragraph 3
    Viewpoint 2 and reason/example
    Paragraph 4
    Viewpoint 3 and reason/example (you may include more viewpoints, and thus more paragraphs in the main body)
    Paragraph 5
    Opposing viewpoint and reason/example (you may include more viewpoints, and thus more paragraphs in the main body)
  • Conclusion
    Final paragraph
    Summarise/restate opinion

    Useful expressions for giving opinions

    To my mind/To my way of thinking, …
    It is my (firm) belief/opinion/view/conviction (that) …
    In my opinion/view …
    I (firmly) believe …
    I am (not) convinced that …
    I (do not) agree that/with
    It strikes me that
    My opinion is that,
    I (definitely) feel/think that …
    I am inclined to believe that …
    It seems/appears to me …
    As far as I am concerned, …

    Заготовки

    Hardly a day goes by without the subject of <…> being raised in most people’s life (means of mass media).
    <…> is certainly something which is often discussed in today’s world.
    Thus, no one can deny or raise an objection against the fact that it is very essential to…
    In my opinion, …

    In the first place, it is my belief that …

    Secondly, what is more important (efficient, relevant)…

    This can be clearly shown by the fact that …

    In addition (In contrast), it must be admitted that …

    Taking everything in account, it must be said that …

    ~85 words

    ТЕКСТ будет еще
    Примеры эссе будут позже добавлены в следующий пост




  • Essays Suggesting Solutions to Problems

    An essay discussing problems and suggesting solutions is a formal piece of writing. You should state the problem and its causes clearly, then present your suggestions and the expected results or consequences these might have.
    Например, The crime rate among teenagers has increased dramatically in many countries. Discuss some possible reasons for this increase and suggest solutions to this problem. (обсудите проблему и предложите решения)


    A successful essay of this type should consist of:
    a) An introductory paragraph in which you clearly state the problem, what has caused it, and the consequences;
    b) A main body in which you present several suggested solutions, each in a separate paragraph together with its consequences/results; and
    c) A conclusion in which you summarise your opinion.

    Points to consider

    - Each paragraph should start with a topic sentence which summarises what the paragraph is about.
    - Appropriate linking words and phrases should be used to show the connection between paragraphs as well as to link sentences within a paragraph.

    Structure

  • Introduction
    Paragraph 1
    State the problem and its cause(s)/consequence(s)
  • Main body
    Paragraph 2
    Suggestion 1 and result
    Paragraph 3
    Suggestion 2 and result
    Paragraph 4
    Suggestion 3 and result
    Paragraph 5
    Suggestion 4 and result (you may include more suggestions, and thus more paragraphs in the main body)
  • Conclusion
    Final paragraph
    Summarise your opinion

    Useful language

    To express cause:
    Since/ because, in view of/because of/owing to/due to (the fact that) …, The reason that …/why …/for … is that…
    To express effect:
    Thus/therefore/so/consequently, as a result/consequence, the result of … would be …, …would result in …
    To express purpose:
    So that …, so as/in order (not) to …, with the purpose of/intention of (+ ing)
    To express possibility/probability:
    It can/could/may/might …,
    It is possible/probable/(un)likely/foreseeable/certain that …, …is (un)likely to/bound to/certain to/possible/probable …,
    The likelihood/possibility/probability of (-ing/noun) is …


    Useful expressions: problems & solutions

    Steps should so as to solve
    Measures must be taken in order to overcome
    could combat/deal with...


    Serious attempts to halt/prevent/solve … must be made.
    One (possible) solve/overcomethis problem
    Another way to combat/deal withthe problem (of)...would be...
    An alternative eradicate is...


    People to solve/overcome the problem of...
    Governmentsshould focus their/our attention on waysto improve the situation of...
    We to reduce the impact of... on society...


    If steps/measures were taken to …
    If … happened/were to happen,the effect/result/consequence
    would be …
    If attempts were made to address the problem

    By (+ing) …, we/ government/etc, can ensure that / prevent …
    The … situation could be improved if …/It would be a good idea if …

    The effect/consequenceof (+noun/-ing)would be...
    The outcome/result might be...


    Заготовки
    Hardly a day goes by without the subject of <…> being raised in most people’s life (means of mass media).
    <…> is certainly something which is often discussed in today’s world.
    Thus, no one can deny or raise an objection against the fact that it is very essential to…

    Perhaps the main reason for this alarming fact is …
    People should focus their attention on ways to overcome the problem of …
    Even more, the concrete measures should be taken in order to deal with …

    Firstly, one way to combat this problem would be (for the government) to …
    As the result, …

    Secondly, the alternative way to solve the problem of … would be …

    One final suggestion, which would help enormously, is to …

    To sum everything up, there are several measures which could be taken to improve …

    ~ 140 words

    ТЕКСТ будет еще
    Примеры эссе будут позже добавлены в следующий пост


    Comments

    ( 3 comments — Leave a comment )
    ekbe01
    Aug. 13th, 2008 10:35 am (UTC)
    К слову о пунктуации
    Самая шикарная книженция о знаках препинания, что мне попадалась - "Казнить нельзя помиловать. Бескомпромисный подход к пунктуации." Линн Трасс.
    С юмором (я просто падала, написано именно для таких зануд, как я, которым становится плохо от неграмотно расставленных запятых). О каждом знаке написано (апостроф, запятая, точка с запятой, тире, проч.), в конце каждой главы все структурировано (краткий вывод, можно отксерить - и на стенку).
    http://www.bolero.ru/books/9785934391929.html
    Переведено на русский, но переведено хорошо. Примеры даны на англ.
    Очень небольшая, кстати, и глотается за один вечер.
    Мне дала прекрасное понимание принципов.
    Которе часто отличаются от правил в русском языке.
    hacmehka
    Aug. 14th, 2008 08:15 pm (UTC)
    Re: К слову о пунктуации
    Ох, спасибо. А-то меня тичер завалил инфой о пунктуации - уже все в голове перемешалось. Уже по-русски запятые ставить боюсь ;)
    oks_kononenko
    May. 17th, 2010 01:38 pm (UTC)
    спасибо))) надеюсь мне пригодится)
    ( 3 comments — Leave a comment )